#### Fundamentals of Bridge Rating

Bridge rating is a continuous activity of the agency to ensure the safety of public. It provides information to repair, rehabilitate, post, close…

#### Elastic limit and Proportionality limit

We all have been taught in our high school that for a material like metals (steel or iron) they follow a proportional path…

#### Deflection and Bending Moment Diagram in SAP2000

Directional polarity has been the most fundamental thing one should learn before digging deep into the numerical values of any problem. Whether be…

#### Frame Element Internal Forces (SAP 2000)

The frame element internal forces are: P, the axial forceV2, the shear force in the 1-2 planeV3, the shear force in the 1-3…

#### Local Axes in frame (SAP2000)

By default the local 1-axis of a frame object extends from the i-end of the element to the j-end. The default orientation of…

#### Plastic Analysis of a beam and frame

In plastic analysis and design of a structure, the ultimate load of the structure as a whole is regarded as the design criterion.…

#### Static and Kinematic Indeterminacy

1. Unknown Internal Forces (SI) 2. Unknown External Forces (SI) 3. Unknown Movements (KI) 1. Internal Forces: They are the forces produced in a member of…

#### Slope Deflection Method

ASSUMPTIONS IN THE SLOPE DEFLECTION METHOD This method is based on the following simplified assumptions. 1- All the joints of the frame are…

#### Displacements by energy principles

Displacementsby energy principles beam of length L under pure bending The total strain energy stored in a bending beam is then and if…

#### Statically Determinate and Indeterminate Structure

Structure is an assemblage of a number of components like slabs, beams, columns, walls, foundations and so on, which remains in equilibrium. It…